Co-design of Cyber-Physical Systems

Project description


Cyber-physical systems link digital devices with human, vehicles, or robotic devices. Co-design of CPS properties shows promise of making the holistic system more capable and efficient. Traditionally, co-design has involved decisions for optimal allocation of resources to manage the cyber and physical effectors. Due to the complexity of CPS this often involves an iterative cycle of independent subsystem design, integration, test, verify, and repeat until results are deemed satisfactory.
True co-design for CPS requires new models, and new abstractions that allow design methodologies to incorporate important properties, and design techniques from both cyber and physical parts of the system simultaneously. In this project, we are investigating continuous-time abstractions of the cyber system that can be formulated in traditional state-space control abstractions thereby leveraging the rich theory and design techniques of feedback control theory.
To complement this work, we have also investigated the use of multi-disciplinary optimization techniques wherein both cyber and physical metrics are coupled and optimal control techniques are leveraged to determine co-design parameters. These two directions of research in conjunction could provide a powerful co-design technique spanning low-level feedback control up to guidance and navigation of CPS.





  • Justin Mathew Bradley, Grad. Student. Email: justyn at
  • Shikang Xu, Grad. Student.
  • Nitin Prakash, Grad. Student.
  • Ye Xu, Grad. Student.


  • C.M. Krishna and I. Koren. Adaptive Fault-Tolerance for Cyber-Physical Systems. Cyber-Physical Systems Workshop, 2013 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2013, pp. 310-314. PDF pdf.
  • R.C. Ravindran, C.M. Krishna, I. Koren and Z. Koren. Scheduling Imprecise Task Graphs for Real-Time Applications. Submitted to the International Journal of Embedded Systems.
  • Ye Xu, Israel Koren and C. M. Krishna. A Study of the Impact of Computational Delays in Missile Interception Systems. International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics 2012: 585-588 PDF pdf.
  • Abhinna Jain, C.M. Krishna, Israel Koren, Zahava Koren. COST FUNCTIONS FOR SCHEDULING TASKS IN CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS. International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics 2012, 412-421 PDF pdf.
  • H. Wang, I. Koren, and C.M. KrishnaRuntime Architecture Adaptation for Energy Management in Embedded Real-Time Systems . International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), 2012 PDF pdf.
  • Khaled Hadi and C. M. Krishna. Management of Target-Tracking Sensor NetworksPDF pdf.
  • Justin M. Bradley, and Ella M. Atkins. Toward Continuous State–Space Regulation of Coupled Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 100(1) pages 60-74. Jan. 2012. PDF pdf.
  • Justin M. Bradley, and Ella M. Atkins. Multi-Disciplinary Cyber-Physical Optimization for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Infotech Aerospace2012.PDF pdf.
  • Justin M. Bradley, and Ella M. Atkins. Computational-Physical State Co-Regulation in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2011 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. PDF pdf.
  • Justin M. Bradley, and Ella M. Atkins. Co-Regulation of Cyber Physical Systems. NIST/USCAR/NSF Automotive CPS Workshop, Troy, MI, 2011.PDF pdf.
  • J. M. Bradley and E. M. Atkins. Coupled Cyber-Physical System Modelingand Coregulation of a CubeSat IEEE Transactions on Robotics (conditionally accepted), 2015
  • J. M. Bradley and E. M. Atkins. Cyber-Physical Optimization for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, vol. 11, pp. 48–60, January 2014 PDF pdf.
  • J. M. Bradley, M. L. Clark, E. M. Atkins, and K. G. Shin. Mission-Aware Cyber-Physical Optimization on a Tabletop Satellite. in AIAA Infotech, Aerospace, Boston, MA, August 2013 PDF pdf.
  • E. M. Atkins and J. M. Bradley. Aerospace Cyber-Physical Systems Education. in AIAA Infotech Aerospace, (Boston, MA), August 2013 PDF pdf.
  • J. M. Bradley and E. M. Atkins. Position Paper: Cyber-Physical Systems. tech. rep., NIST Foundations for Innovation in Cyber-Physical Systems Workshop, Chicago, IL, March 2012 PDF pdf.
  • J. M. Bradley. Toward Co-Design of Autonomous Aerospace Cyber-Physical Systems. PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2014 PDF pdf.